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Immunotherapy and penis cancer

Penis cancer, a cancerous disease in which malignant cells appear in the tissues of the penis. It occurs in the uncircumcised older men. It is recognized by at least two independent carcinogenic routes: virus and non-virus induced. The penis cancer is also very rare in Europe and North America. In the United States, penis cancer generally occurs in less than 1 man in 100,000 and accounts for less than 1% of cancer in men. Around half of the cancers are mainly caused by an infection with high risk human papilloma virus (hrHPV), and its main type is HPV-16. The other types of penis cancer arise, independent of hrHPV infection. The most common symptoms of penis cancer are irregular swelling at the end of the penis, a growth or sore on the penis, skin thickening on the penis, changes in the color of the penis, small and crusty bumps beneath the foreskin, reddish and velvety rash beneath the foreskin, and pain in the shaft or tip of the penis. Squamous cell or epidermoid carcinomas, basal cell carcinoma, melanoma and sarcoma are different types of penis cancers which are usually rare. The immunotherapy is a good alternative of chemotherapy for the treatment of penis cancer, but maximum drugs and therapies are under the clinical trials for FDA approval.

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