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Immunotherapy and urinary bladder cancer


Bladder cancer is a type of cancer, which arises from the epithelial lining (urothelium) of the urinary bladder due to the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the bladder. Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) is the most common type of cancer, involving urinary bladder. It is one of the leading causes of death, worldwide. As per statistical analysis, it is the 7th leading cancer in men worldwide and 17th leading cancer in women worldwide. The bladder cancer represents 4.5% of all the new cancer cases in U.S. The bladder cancer is mainly of three types: Transitional cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma. The molecular instabilities and abnormal metabolic pathways play a key role in the development of urinary bladder cancer and its progression. Intravesical immunotherapy has been approved by FDA for the treatment of urinary bladder cancer and some other drugs, vaccines, and therapies are in clinical trials for FDA approval. Everolimus, sorfenib, and suitinib are highly potential agents for the treatment of urinary bladder cancer and are under clinical trials. Researchers are still challenged in exploring innate and adaptive immune systems.

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